Studies in Western Art No.2
Special Issue :
Art Acadmies

September, 1999



Editor's Foreword

Masahiko Mori

Some Problems of Academy Studies



Masahiko Mori

Rethinking the Accademia del Disegno in Florence

The Florentine Accademia del Disegno was founded as an instrument of the cultural policies under the Medici Principate. The purpose of the founders, whose majority had a hatred for the late Bandinelli' s academy, was to promote the arts of disegno and to form a kind of a sapienza as a complement to the Accademia Fiorentina. The formative years of the Academy were characterized by dual aspects. One was that the Academy was a traditional and slipshod organization. The first regulations of January 1563 were soon revised in JuIy. The officers were often the same, which suggests that they were elected not by voting but by common consent or negotiation. The other aspect was that the Academy was conscious of its difference from a confraternity and the old guilds. It is easy to point out a parallelism between some ideal plans stipulated in the above-mentioned two regulations and Vasari's art ideology. Even though a teaching system was still irregular at that time, it is highly probable that some educational programs such as anatomical studies guided by Alessandro Allori, Vincenzo Danti, mathematical lectures by lgnazio Danti, and drawing lessons were practiced.

Akihiro Ozaki

The Politics of Karel van Mander
The Visual Strategy for the 'Academy' and the Praise of Painting

Karel van Mander made an eternal contribution to Dutch culture through his praise of painting. One of the key ideas of his artistic strategy was the 'academy'. Using the representation of 'academy', he created a new competing cultural paradigm which was in contrast to that of Italy. As a judicious artist and art theorist, he had the ambition of establishing hegemony over the future of art. The first form was represented by the so-called Haarlem Academy, founded by Van Mander, H. Goltzius, and Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem in the early 1590s. There is very little known about the Academy and its precepts. However, judging from recent studies, it is obvious that the Academy emphasized the study of the human body; drawings were made from live models.
But we must not overlook the fact that the formation of this Academy was extremely political. This Academy was inspired by contact with the artistic movement of RudolfU's court in Prague. It may be that van Mander firmly believed the Netherlands, especially Haarlem, was the new successor which could stand in opposition to Italy. The painters who followed van Mander inherited this ideal. It was Rembrandt who best understood the ideal of van Mander's 'academy' by the way he put his heart and soul into being a high-quality craftsman.

Jonathan Brown
Translated by Hiroshige Okada

Academies of Painting in Seventeenth-Century Spain

The foundation of an academy of the arts had been a matter of growing interest in Spain since the late sixteenth century. Some artists of Italian origin or of Italianate background in Madrid played an important part in this enterprise, one goal of which was to improve the social standing of the artist in Spain. Vicente Carducho's plan, submitted to the Cortes of 1624 was the culmination of this effort. He intended to found a centralized royal academy, which would take control of all artistic production in the country. But Carducho's elite-oriented plan ended in failure, mainly because it was opposed by the majority of painters, who feared it would curtail their income. Though some regional academies were started, they could not flourish in an provincial environment. Spanish artists thus had to wait until 1752 for the foundation of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, when at last they could derive the benefits from an official academy. (translator)

Hidenori Kurita

The Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture
Its History and Organization

The Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in France was founded when antagonism between the old guild and royally licenced artists reached its peak. Members of the Academy presented totally new ideas on the arts to the French after Italian ones: painting and sculpture belong to the liberal arts and painters and sculptors should get a more elevated social status. Under Louis XIV's reign, the materialization of the academy's ideals and its organization were nearly completed. But as the Royal family weakened and the number of lovers of art increased, one came to prefer art which gives pleasure to eyes rather than to the intellect. So the status of the academy became lower.
From the middle of the eighteenth century, some critcs and bureaucrats began to insist that History painting should be at the top of the hierarchy of the genres. Then the academy gained centripetal force through several reforms.

Miyuki Ozeki

The History of the Kuenigliche Akademie der Kuenste zu Berlin

The Royal Academy of the Arts in Berlin was, in 1696, the third public art academy to be founded in Europe, after Rome and Paris. However throughout the 18th century it was no more than a small private school of little importance. Only after two reforms executed about 1800 was it enlivened and reborn as the most modern institution for art education in German-speaking countries. While the first refom since 1786 was led by the teachers and concerned the methodology of teaching art based on neo-classical asthetics, the second reform of 1809 was instigated by ministers and aimed at reorganizing the whole cultural administration in Prussia. With the foundation of a ministry for culture the academy achieved its independence from the unstable patronage of the monarchy, enabling its continuous development under the initiative of the director Gottfried Schadow. But its mechanical and overloaded teaching curriculum gradually estranged its pupils . By introducing a "Meisterklasse (master course)" at the Duesseldorfer academy Wilhelm Schadow extended the horizon of art education. However, he simultaneously disclosed its duality : Is art democratic enough to be achieved by the educational systems offered by the art schools? Or does art only derive from the genius of an individual person? The separation of the educational department from the Berliner academy in the year 1875, as a result of which the Hochschule der Kuenste was founded, symbolizes the contradictory task of an art academy which originally started as a liberal society of free artists and ended as an art school that regulated the artistic development of the individual.

Naoko Miyazaki

The Royal Academy
A Brief History of its Foundation and Principles

The Royal Academy of Arts was founded in 1768 by a group of prominent artists and architects of the day, to provide a venue open to all artists to exhibit their work to the public, and to establish an art school where students would have access to skills and knowledge taught under a series of set curricula. Sir Joshua Reynolds, a founding member and the first president, had much to do with the artistic principles of the institution, advocating in his famous Discourses that one should strive for sublime art in the manner of the 'grand style'. Its foundation paved the way for artists to achieve professional standing, and the title 'Royal Academician' gave those elected an exclusive social prestige and status, and for some, considerable economic success. Although the Academy was self-governed and financially independent, royal patronage and the immense popularity of its annual exhibition meant that it was constantly at the centre of cultural debate over its legitimacy and its public role. Nevertheless, it remained an important centre of the art world throughout its history, and the Academy spawned many influential artists.

Atsushi Miura

The Academie des Beaux-Arts and Art Institutions in Nineteenth- Century France
On the Reform of the System in 1863

In nineteenth-century France, the Academie des Beaux-Arts ruled unilaterally the art world by dominating art institutions such as the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the Prix de Rome competition, and the official exhibition of the Salon. Nevertheless, during the second half of the century, the Academie came into conflict with the art administration, which would get rid of the prerogatives of the Academie and foster a relativism and democratic liberalism in the arts. A symbolic event in this struggle is the reform of the art educational system by a decree in November 1863. The opening of the Salon des Refuses in the same year had already hurt the authority of the members of the Academie as a jury; this decree transferred by imperative the control of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the Prix de Rome from the Academie to the art administraion of the Second Empire. This reform was rolled back due to a strong reaction from the conservative corps, but the same battles would continue to occur in various guises throughout the Third Republic.


Sources and Documents
Translations with Annotations

Masahiko Mori

The First Regulations of the Florentine Accademia del Disegno(January 1563)

Hiroshige Okada

Draft for Constitution of the Academia de Diseno of Madrid (1624)

Shigetoshi Osano et al.

Charles Le Brun, Conference on the Expression of the Passions

Toshiharu Nakamura

Painting a Landscape
Excerpts from Sandrart's Teutsche Akademie


Chronological Table of Art Academies


Book Review

Kan Shimamoto

Paul Duro, The Academy and the Limits of Painting in Seventeeth-Century France


Shigeki Abe

Amaury-Duval, L'Atelier d'Ingres, presente et annote par Daniel Ternois

Exhibition Review

Akiko Komada

L'art au temps des rois maudits
Philippe le Bel et ses fils(Paris 1998)


Tomoo Matsubara

I Della Robbia e l' "arte nuova" della scultura invetriata(Firenze 1998)


Chikashi Kitazaki

Gustave Moreau, 1826-1898(Paris 1998)