Studies in Western Art@No.8
Special Issue :
Art Collections

November, 2002



Editor's Foreword

Masahiko Mori / Tetsuhiro Kato

Notes on Collecting: Toward an Archaeology of Art History



Francis Haskell
Translated by Takuma Ito and with Commentary by Shigetoshi Osano

Venetian Art and English Collectors of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

During the mid sixteenth century, the collection of Venetian art spread across Europe, spurred by the interest in Titian displayed by (Karl the 5th?). In England as well, during the seventeenth century, art collecting began in earnest among the royal family and its circle. In Britain, which continued to maintain good political relations with Venice, Venetian Renaissance painting was the subject of particular admiration and avidly collected. With the Civil War, however, collecting came to a halt, and collections already in existence were dispersed abroad. Collecting after the revolution inevitably took a different turn from what came before, focusing instead upon contemporary Venetian painters. Ricci, Pelegrino and many other painters visited London and came to constitute one of the centers of artistic production there. In addition, Canaletto's works, which were taken up by Joseph Smith, can still be found in the royal collection. This lecture begins with the early Renaissance and surveys the collection of Venetian painting in England through numerous case studies.



Kyoko Sengoku-Haga

A Private Collection of Sculpture in Ancient Rome
The 'Monumenta' of Asinius Pollio

Asinius Pollio, a rich Roman citizen and successful statesman, was also a man of culture and renowned as a collector of sculpture. Plinius records the titles of the works and sculptors represented in his collection. In this article, based on archaeological and epigraphical testimonies, the author identifies some of the works that Asinius collected (the Rape of Nymphs by Centaurs of Archesilaos, the Hermerotes of Tauriskos, and the Appiades of Stephanos), clarifies his conception of collecting (including his practice of adding to the collection by ordering new sculptures to form pair-works, according to subject but not style), and locates the 'Monumenta' in the garden of Asinius definitively. Finally, a hypothesis is offered as to how the works were displayed in his garden: the Mountain-Group consisted of a statue of Jupiter and another Jupiter Hospitalis, Apollo and the Muses, Dionysus and Sileni, and the group of Dirce; the Sea-Group, Neptune and Oceanus, Venus and her Nymphs, and a group of Sea-Centaurs with Nymphs. The latter group must have been furnished with several fountains and basins, to which the aqueduct Anio Vetus provided an abundant supply of water.

Akihiro Ozaki

Some Observations on Rembrandt's Collection

The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of Rembrandt's collection, the process of its formation, and the extent to which the prints of Lucas van Leyden and Pieter Bruegel the elder (including the prints after him), which Rembrandt collected enthusiastically, exerted an influence upon the artist. Through exploration of his collection, furthermore, the argument is made that Rembrandt's purview exceeded the borders of Europe to include the visual material of East Asia. The author does not attempt to consider Rembrandt' s collection as the systematic reflection of a unified concept, universal or encyclopedic in character, but rather to conceptualize it as a historical phenomenon. His collection is self-reflective, much like his self-portraits, and therefore proves to be one of the most fertile areas for aesthetic exploration of the Dutch seventeenth century.

Masashi Urakami

Cassiano dal Pozzo and the Paper Museum (Museo Cartaceo)

Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588 - 1656) is one of the most interesting intellectuals in Rome active during the reign of Pope Urban VIII. Today he is remembered primarily as an important patron of Nicolas Poussin. In his own time, however, he enjoyed international fame for, among other things, his promotion of the study of Roman classical antiquity. At the center of his activities in this area is his collection of thousands of Roman antiquities drawings, which he himself called the Paper Museum (Museo Cartaceo). In the Paper Museum there are drawings of various aspects of Antique Rome; it contains drawings not only of fine art works like sculptures and paintings but also of daily-use items such as lamps or pins. In fact, with this collection of drawings, dal Pozzo intended to create a visual cultural database of Roman antiquities. This article attempts to point out the characteristics and historical significance of the Paper Museum in the context of the study of Roman antiquities in early modern Italy and, at the same time, examine Poussin's role in the realization of this enterprise and his relationship with dal Pozoo in the context of their mutual interest in Roman antiquities.

Masahiko Mori

Leopoldo de' Medici, Baldinucci, and his Drawing Collection

Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici's art collecting is closely associated with the activities of connoisseur and art historian Filippo Baldinucci. The latter's treatise Notizie de' professori del disegno was originally conceived of as a means of organizing the cardinal's drawing collection, and Leopoldo himself supported this plan. After Leopoldo's death, Baldinucci organized the collection into 105 corpora consisting of eighty-three libri particolari and twenty-two libri universali. While each album of libri particolari consisted of the work of only one artist, each libri universali was composed of various artists' pieces. It is surprising that Baldinucci included in the libro universale precisely twelve drawings of each artist organized into libro particolare. It bears testimony to the fact that he wanted to show the development of art style in the libri universali. However, the actual state of the drawing arrangement is surprisingly confused. In this paper, the author discusses the gap between the ideal and the actual results of Baldinucci's attempt, focusing on the first libro universale. Although the art historical methodology exemplified by the drawing arrangement stated proudly in the first volume of his Notizie is revolutionary, it must be interpreted as a rhetorical strategy of this Baroque letterato. During the actual work of classification, he must have been confronted with many difficulties, especially with problems of attribution. In many cases, in fact, he seems to have made reattributions through a process of trial and error.

Kan Shimamoto

Art of Collecting in Eighteenth-Century Paris
Painting, Market, Art Dealer

The eighteenth century witnessed the birth of an open art market with the growth of auction sales in Paris. This market also stimulated an interest in the collecting of pictures (paintings, drawings, prints), especially of the Flemish and Dutch schools, which was not yet widespread in the seventeenth century. In surveying the vagaries of the market throughout the century, this paper will touch upon numerous topics concerning art and economy: the price of Flemish painting, art dealers with a painterly background, painters as collectors, and so forth. In addition, it will focus upon the figure of Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun, generally regarded as the first modern art dealer. He not only organized auctions and edited its catalogs, but also constructed his own gallery for exhibitions and published books of art history and art criticism. Through these activities, Le Brun provided a modern historical frame through which to understand Flemish and Dutch painting, as well as provide a new understanding of genre painting.

Megumi Jingaoka

The Use of Images in Art Dealing
Leon Gauchez (1825-1907) and Auction Catalogues Illustrated with Etchings

The early decades of the Third Republic witnessed the emergence of auction catalogues richly illustrated with etchings as reproductions. Based on a case study of 1873, this paper attempts to shed light on these mostly unknown publications and to place them in the context of a network of sales campaigns brought about through an alliance of art dealers and collectors.
In 1873, four auction catalogues were produced sharing etched illustrations with the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, the most prestigious French art journal. The Flemish art dealer Leon Gauchez was the central figure among the dealers and speculative collectors sponsoring this slew of publications; he worked behind the scenes at auctions under the names of private collectors, and spoke highly of these illustrated catalogues as an art critic of the prints section of the Salon under a pseudonym. Here the auction catalogue, with its 'guaranteed' illustrations, came to constitute one of the premier cultural and social devices of publicity to enhance the authenticity and reputation of paintings on sale.

Tetsuhiro Kato

Art Collections and Art-Historical Research in the Pioneer Days
the Case of J. D. Fiorillo, 1748-1821

This paper attempts to make clear the close connection between art collections and art-historical research in earlier eras by tracing the life and work of the art historian Johann Dominicus Fiorillo (1748-1821), who was the first figure to assume the seat of full professor (Ordentlicher Professor) at the university of Gottingen. There Fiorillo had three faces: 'Meister' (teacher) of the art of drawing, 'inspector' of the university's art collection, and 'professor' of art history at the philosophy faculty. In each capacity he held a close relationship to the practice of art collecting, which was widespread at the time. By integrating all three of these aspects (such as, for example, using collection items as 'illustrative' materials for his art-historical curriculum), Fiorillo laid the foundation for the development of art history into a new, positivistic discipline, as we can see clearly from his Description of Paintings in the Collection of the University of Gottingen (1805).


State of Research

Motokazu Kimata

The Collection of the Sainte-Chapelle

Toshiharu Nakamura

Resta, Rubens, and van Diepenbeeck

Sources and Documents
Translations with Annotations

The Testamentum of Charlemagne
An Emperor's Collection in the Carolingian Renaissance

Translated with Commentary by Minoru Ozawa

Marcantonio Michiel, Notizia d'Opere di Disegnoi1521-43j

Translated by Akira Yoshino, Toru Ikeda, and Michiaki Koshikawa,
with Commentary by Michiaki Koshikawa

Federico@Borromeo, Musaeum: Milanese Cardinal's Art Collection

Translated by Kaoru Adachi, with Commentary by Masahiko Mori


Book Review

Hiroshige Okada

Jonathan Brown, Kings & Connoisseurs
Collecting Art in Seventeenth-Century Europe


Hiroshige Okada / Tetsuhiro Kato / Masahiko Mori

Exhibition Review

Yasunori Ishizawa

Sandro Botticelli: The Drawings for Dante's Divine Comedy
iBerlin, 2000^Rome, 2000^London, 2001j


Art News

The Uses of Reproductions
The Cases of the Facsimiles of the Segers Print Exhibition and the Otsuka Museum of Art
-Section 1
Rintaro Terakado
The Facsimiles of the Segers' Etching
Section 2-
Shigetoshi Osano
The Otsuka Museum of Art
A Space Filled with Life-Size Reproductions of Paintings