The Originality of Sculptors and the Inventiveness of Clients as seen in Copies
Many Greek masterpieces of the fifth century B.C.E. were copied over and over throughout antiquity. A consideration of Alkamenes' Herma, erected at the entrance to the Acropolis of Athens, provides special insight into this phenomenon, because its copies are abundant and the earliest example dates back to as early as the fourth century B.C.E. Based on an examination of these copies, the author will trace various methods of copying in sculpture and demonstrate the originality of many sculptor-copiers. In addition, through an examination of well-documented cases, the original contexts of certain sculptural copies will be reconstructed and the so-called messages that their patrons intended for them to convey will be clarified. In these various messages can be discerned the shared significance of Herma copies as symbols of the Acropolis of Athens, embodying the golden age Athenian art in the 5th century B.C.E.
From Copy to Copy
Albrecht Durer brought a suit against Marcantonio Raimondi, because Marcantonio copied completely Durer's prints with the monogram. It was presumably the first suit concerning copyright of image in the history of European art. Consequently Durer was delivered a decision to prohibit Marcantonio not from copying the image, but from copying the monogram. Why was Durer given the decision? I want to investigate the reason by researching how copies were made in the workshop of artists in the period. As a result, it was explicated that German prints could be copied repeatedly. For example, Israhel van Meckenem copied the prints by the famous masters reversely, and then the reverse copies by Israhel could be copied again by others. So we can hypothesize that there was a chain reaction of making print-copies in the late middle ages. Why did Durer bring an action against Marcantonio in this milieu? I think that a clue to the question can be found in the monograms of Durer, for his monograms were strikingly original. The originality of monogram may have been deeply respected in the court, because the monogram was a trademark.
Copyists in the Louvre, 1850-1870
The Louvre, home to numerous masterpieces of western art, was a valuable site of instruction for modern painters from the nineteenth century onward. This was the case not only for academic painters following the traditions of the past, but for the avant-garde pursuing originality in the present. From the "registers" of the period, this paper reconstructs in detail the records of the copyists who obtained permission to work in the Louvre for the period 1850-1870, thereby revealing that Manet and his colleagues as well as the future Impressionists, especially those deeply concerned with figures, devoted themselves to copying older works for varied motives. Equally instructive are the 'registers' of the painters who received permission to work in the Cabinet des Estampes of the Bibliotheque Imperiale, where reproductive engravings of the masters were then on permanent exhibition. A close investigation into these records also brings to light their practices of copying in the institution.
The Paradox of Repetition
Ad Reinhardt and Andy Warhol are normally regarded as poles apart both in terms of their work and ideas on art. Reinhardt kept painting Black Paintings without ever doubting the value of abstract painting, while Warhol put an end to the myth of originality in modern art with his Pop paintings. These two artists, however, had something fundamental in common: both of them based their paintings exclusively on the principle of repetition.
The Rise of the Art Market and the Display of Paintings in the Southern Netherlands
Image and Imprint in the Christ Icon
How Mass-Produced Artifacts Capture Sacred Power
Panofsky and the Facsimile Debate in Hamburg
Originality as Repetition
Translation by Kyoko Sengoku-Haga, with Commentary by Shigetoshi Osano and Kyoko Sengoku-Haga
The Meaning of the Copy and the Original in Antiquity
Translation with Commentary by Shigetoshi Osano
Copies in Italian Renaissance Art
Translation by Kayo Hirakawa, with Commentary by Toshiharu Nakamura
Rubens' Studio and the Marketing of Copies
Translation by Naoko Sugiyama et al., with Commentary by Naoko Sugiyama
Roger de Piles, "L'idee du peinture parfait"
Translation with Commentary by Megumi Jingaoka
"Copy" in Dictionaries of Art in Nineteenth-Century France
David Landau and Peter Parshall, The Renaissance Print 1470-1550
Susan Lambert, The Image Multiplied: Five Centuries of Printed Reproductions of Paintings and Drawings
Roland Mortier, L'Originalite: une nouvelle categorie esthetique au siecle des Lumieres
edited by Akira Akiyama
The Role of the Legend of the True Cross in The Tapestry of Creation in Girona
The Catalan embroidery, widely known as The Tapestry of Creation in Girona (1050-1100) is a lively representation of medieval cosmology, consisting of Genesis scenes surrounded by the four cardinal winds, the calendar and the four seasons. Although its right and bottom margins are badly damaged, the scenes from the legend of the True Cross at the bottom are still recognizable. This paper examines why the scenes from the True Cross legend are depicted together with the creation scenes at the centre, for the combination of these two cycles are extremely rare. As stated by Baert, the iconography of the legend of the True Cross in the tapestry bears a close resemblance to the Carolingian manuscript Wessobrunn Prayerbook from Bavaria. Through re-investigation of the manuscript, the close correlation between the True Cross legend and the cosmography and Genesis cycle can be observed. The proximity of the two is confirmed by statistical examination of many other manuscripts containing the True Cross legend. The True Cross legend is often found in the hagiographical text but its exact position within the book varies greatly and some show a correlation with the Easter liturgy. This evidence clarifies the new liturgical role of the tapestry and enables us to understand the True Cross legend scene integrated into the main Genesis scene at the centre.
Matisse Picasso (London / New York / Paris, 2002-03)